Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have increased by about one-third since the start of the Industrial Revolution, from about 300 parts per million (ppm) to about 400 ppm. About one-third of the atmosphere's carbon dioxide dissolves into the ocean. As dissolved carbon dioxide levels have increased, the earth's seawater has become about 30 percent more acidic. "Like many green plants, eelgrass grows faster as carbon dioxide levels increase," notes California Sea Grant Extension ecologist Joe Tyburczy at Humboldt State University in Eureka, California. "But unlike green plants that grow on land, eelgrass takes up CO2 directly from the seawater."
A bridge failure can be catastrophic. The threat for IR is heightened as about 38000 of its bridges are more than 100 years old. The biggest concern is scour, the removal of sediment from and around bridge abutments and piers caused by swiftly flowing water that can comprise the integrity of the structure. (Article originally printed in the June issue of Rail Business magazine).
The Mexican Institute for Water Technology (IMTA) had big questions to answer as it studied plans for the expansion of the Port of Manzanillo, an important container shipping center on Mexico’s Pacific coast. The port authority received permission to upgrade the harbor on the condition that it restore an adjacent lagoon, cut off from the rest of the harbor by a road embankment decades ago.
Surveys were performed of three Wastewater Ponding Lagoons and a TWM storage lagoon at Kalgoorlie-Boulder Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) to determine the total volume of sludge. The volume of sludge at each lagoon was calculated based on surface elevation model developed from land survey and as-build drawing. The equipment chosen for the surveys consisted of two Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, CEE HydroSystems CEESCOPE with dual frequency echo sounder and rQPOD with autonomous navigation. The survey software utilized during the surveys consisted of HYPACK® Hydrographic Survey and Carlson SurvCE software.
The federal government saw the need for a flood control system through Terrebonne (Louisiana) and neighboring parishes, and in 1992, began a study to map out a project. Congressional acts in 2007 and 2014 resulted in authorizations for a $10.8 billion plan—dubbed the Morganza to the Gulf Hurricane Protection System after the town that marks its projected starting point— but the government never funded the projects. Closely monitoring stage and flow in real-time with instruments such as the SonTek-SL has allowed the levee district team to see the dramatic effects of landscape, wind, and tide on surges across the parish.
The Republic of Indonesia is a vast archipelago with over 17.508 officially listed islands. The physical oceanographic characteristics in Indonesian waters lends itself to many opportunities for potential tidal current energy developments and feasibility studies, and continues to be undertaken to determine the commercial viability of constructing tidal power plants.
Xylem Water Solutions were appointed by Local Government in Bundaberg to establish hydrographic monitoring site in Bundaberg Creek, just upstream of the confluence with the Burnett River. The monitoring objectives at the hydrographic monitoring site consisted of surface water level and flow measurement in real-time available through cloud based hydrological information management system (HIMS). Part of the initial site establishment consisted of performing detailed bathymetric survey of the Bundaberg Creek from upstream the Quay St Footbridge up to the confluence of the Burnett River for hydraulic analysis of the channel.
Previously, volume surveys of impounded waters in pit lakes had been undertaken using Total Station positioning and soundings taken froma boat on the lake. This was a labour intensive process with up to four people required for the survey. In addition to this was the safety concerns associated with working on the water in boats. Kellie Carter, Senior Environmental Advisor, approached Xylem regarding any possible solutions to make this process more efficient.
In 2015, a UCLA team of research scientists returned to southwestern Greenland to study meltwater runoff over three solid days of uninterrupted monitoring. If the their 2012 expedition provided snapshots of the movement of meltwater, the follow-up study that measured the same stream hourly for seven days straight delivered a movie of supraglacial stream flow-data proportions.
With the large volume of cargo vessels relying on the country’s ports, the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) has the challenging task of managing the safe and efficient operation of surrounding waterways. While the average consumer may not spend much time considering how goods arrive at their doorstep, behind the scenes agencies like the MPA are intimately involved with the logistics.